篮球起源 英文版

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篮球起源 英文版
1个回答 分类:综合 2014-12-14

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  Early December 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts YMCA International Training School (later Springfield College), physical education teachers from the school invented by Dr. James Naismith, basketball rules then only 13, Dr. Naismith 1939, died aged 78. He did not expect, from the basketball program he created even spread in the market with over two hundred countries, and so far the U.S. basketball is also known around the world. To commemorate Dr. Naismith invented basketball achievements, in the Springfield College campus built in the United States Basketball Hall of Fame - James Naismith Memorial Hall.
  At first, Naismith will not nailed two peach baskets room key body stands on the railing, peach basket of 3.04 meters above the ground along with the football game as a tool to throw to the basket. 1 point pitch into the basket, how many points decided by the outcome. After each throw into the basket, the ball out to climb a ladder again start the race. Gradually after the end of the basket into living iron basket, and then hanging on to hoops below.
  To 1893, similar to the modern form rebounds, ring, and the Nets. The original game of basketball, the number of playing, the venue size, the game was no strict time limit. Just the two sides must be equal to the number of people participate in the competition. Start of the race, both players were standing on both ends of the line, referee whistle and throw the ball between pitches, the two sides ran inside the ball, start the race. The ball ran to the basket can hold the ball shot, first reach the target score the winner. In 1892, Naismith formulated 13 rules of the game, the main provisions are not allowed to run the ball, allowed a rough action, not allowed to use the boxing ball, a foul or is sentenced to 3 consecutive fouls negative 1; provisions of playing time , the second half, each 15 minutes; provisions were also made on the size of the venue. Gradually reduce the number of people playing games for each team of 10 people, 9, 7, 1893 for each team playing 5.
  1904 Olympic Games in 3 1 was the first basketball exhibition game. 1908 United States developed a unified national basketball rules, shifting languages and has published and distributed all over the world, so that the gradual spread of basketball in America, Europe and Asia, has become a world sport. 1936 11th Olympic Games men's basketball as an official event, and the unity of the world basketball competition rules, after 10 years in 1948, the rules have been revised many times, with the existing rules of important changes are: the score after the jump ball in the circle, to loss of units outside the end line in the backcourt to match bounds; offensive team must advance the ball within 10 seconds and play up front; the ball into the front court not to return after the backcourt; offensive players not in the "restricted zone" to stay for 3 seconds; shooting team is violated, 1 hit free throws, missed shots free throws 2 second-class. 1952 and 1956 Olympic basketball competition two 15,16, there has been more than two meters, the International Amateur Basketball Federation to expand basketball court has twice the "restricted zone" (also known as "3 Division") ; also provides that a team controls the ball after the shot must be shot within 30 seconds. The early 60s about 10 seconds and the provisions of the ball returned to the backcourt, was once the 17th Olympic Games in 1960 after the abolition of the midfield line drawn sideline to change the midpoint of the suspension. 18th Olympic Games in 1964 after he returned to the midfield line, these provisions are to continue. 1977, an increase of over 10 fouls each team after two free throws when the defensive foul, anti-foul free throws when shooting are not in 1 plus 1 penalty provisions. Turn 10 in 1981, the provisions of free throws after a foul reduced to 8 times. Obviously, the personnel changing technologies, the development of tactics caused a rule change, which has promoted the rule changes and technical and tactical changes in the further development. Especially since the late 50s, the rule changes on the offensive and defensive basketball game speed, the athlete's body, technology, tactics, and will, work style and so forth have been put forward new and higher requirements, promoting the rapid increase in the level of basketball skills , women's basketball in 1976 before the 21th Olympic Games as an official event of the.
  Basketball is a before and after 1896 by the Tianjin YMCA introduced to China, then in Beijing, Shanghai, also have the YMCA in this activity. In 1910 was held at the National Games men's basketball exhibition games, major cities in the country, middle school basketball events gradually unfolded, including Tianjin, Beijing and Shanghai in good agreement, levels are high, then Competition rules are simple, in the course of about the middle of drawing a circle 1 meter in diameter, when the center jump ball players must be placed a hand behind the waist, enough to not take any of the group. Technology is simple, after the jump ball in the circle, who received the ball on their dribbling, shooting people over defense. Only straight ahead at dribbling, passing, is a single, hand chest pass, running shot is a layup with one hand underhand, standing shot are both near and far before the lower abdomen with both hands, hands shot. 1925 years ago, the offensive and 5 defensive players, with a clearer division of labor, center of the center, back to the striker, it was marking, each pegged to their opponents. But the striker's role is just shooting attack, regardless of retreat; guard duty is just defensive intercept the ball, regardless of shooting. Forwards and running small audience, only the center to both offensive and defensive. And later gradually changed to assist the two guard 1 (active guard), a person left behind after the field (fixed guard), two forwards who can become an exclusive competence to stay up front attack, quick attack, a man retreated after the field-assisted anti- . Action has also been the development of technology, one-handed running shot there, a master shot, standing shot his hands chest shot there, there was a single pass, pass the ball hit his hands, alternating hands dribbling dribble dodge appeared defensive and beyond defensive forward technology. Rules of the penalty area and the increase in free-throw line, the team fouls 4 is canceled competition and free throw by the team captain kick specify any one. Game time is divided into, the second half of the 20-minute break of 10 minutes. Each time after the vote, or throws, jump ball in the circle, re-start the race. The level of basketball in China since 1926 have been greatly improved.
  1891年12月初在美国马萨诸塞州斯普林菲尔德市基督教青年会国际训练学校(后为春田学院),由该校体育教师詹姆斯·奈史密斯博士发明,当年的篮球规则只有13条,奈史密斯博士于1939年去世,终年78岁.他未曾料到,由他创建的篮球项目竟然在二百多个国家流传市面着,而且至今美国篮球还誉满全球. 为了纪念奈史密斯博士发明的篮球的功绩,在春田学院校园内修建了美国篮球名人馆—詹姆斯·奈史密斯纪念馆.
  起初,奈史密斯将两只桃篮别钉在键身房内看台的栏杆上,桃篮上沿距离地面3.04米,用足球作比赛工具,向篮投掷.投球入篮得1分,按得分多少决定胜负.每次投球进篮后,要爬梯子将球取出再重新开始比赛.以后逐步将竹篮改为活底的铁篮,再改为铁圈下面挂网.
  到1893年,形成近似现代的篮板、篮圈和篮网.最初的篮球比赛,对上场人数、场地大小,比赛时间均无严格限制.只需双方参加比赛的人数必须相等.比赛开始,双方队员分别站在两端线外,裁判员鸣哨并将球掷向球场中间,双方跑向场内抢球,开始比赛.持球者可以抱着球跑向篮下投篮,首先达到预定分数者为胜. 1892年,奈史密斯制定了13条比赛规则,主要规定是不准持球跑,不准有粗野动作,不准用拳击球,否则即判犯规连续3次犯规判负1分;比赛时间规定为上、下半时,各15分钟;对场地大小也作了规定.上场比赛人数逐步缩减为每队10人、9人、7人,1893年定为每队上场5人.
  1904年在第3届奥林匹克运动会上第1次进行了篮球表演赛.1908年美国制定了全国统一的篮球规则,并有移种文字出版,发行于全世界,这样,篮球运动逐渐传遍美洲、欧洲和亚洲,成为世界性运动项目. 1936年第11届奥运会将男子篮球列为正式比赛项目,并统一了世界篮球竞赛规则,此后,到1948年的10多年间,规则曾多次修改,与现行规则有关的重要变化是:将得分后的中圈跳球,改为失分队在后场端线外掷界外球继续比赛;进攻队必须在10秒钟内把球推进到前场;球进前场后不得再回后场;进攻队员不得在“限制区”内停留3秒钟;投篮队员被侵犯时,投中罚球1次,投不中罚球2次等.1952年和1956年第15、16两届奥运会的篮球比赛中,出现了两米以上的多人,国际业余篮球联合会曾两次扩大篮球场地的“限制区”(也叫“3分区”);还规定,一个队控制球后,必须在30秒内投篮出手.60年代初有关10秒和球回后场的规定,一度因1960年第17届奥运会后取消了中场线改画边线的中点而中止.1964年第18届奥运会后,又恢复了中场线,这些规定又继续执行.1977年增加了每队满10次犯规后,在防守犯规时罚球两次,防投篮时犯规两罚有1次不中再加罚1次的规定.1981年又将10次犯规后罚球的规定缩减到8次.很明显,人员的变化的技术,战术的发展引起了规则的改变,而规则的改变又促进了人员和技术、战术的进一步发展变化.特别是50年代后期以来,规则的改变对篮球比赛的攻守速度,对运动员的身体、技术、战术以及意志、作风等各方面都不断提出新的更高的要求,促进了篮球技术水平的迅速提高,女子篮球是1976年第21届奥运会上才列为正式比赛项目的.
  篮球运动是1896年前后由天津中华基督教青年会传入中国的,随后在北京、上海基督教青年会里也有了此项活动.在1910年的全运会上举行了男子篮球表演赛之后,在全国各大城市的大、中学校的篮球活动逐渐开展起来,其中以天津、北京、上海开展得较好,水平也较高,当时的比赛规则很简单,在球场中间画一个约有1米直径的中圈,中锋队员跳球时一只手必须置于背后腰部,任何一足不得踏出圈外.技术也简单,中圈跳球后,谁接到球就自己运球,超过防守人就投篮.当时只会直线运球前进,传球方法是单、双手胸前传球,跑动投篮是用单手低手上篮,立定投篮无论远近都是用双手腹前低手投篮.1925年前后,进攻和防守的5名运动员,有了较明确的分工,中锋对中锋,后卫对前锋,有人盯人,各自盯住自己的对手.但前锋的职责是只管进攻投篮,不管退守;后卫的职责是只管防守抢截球,不管投篮.前锋和后卫很少全场跑动,只有中锋要攻守兼顾.以后又逐渐改为两后卫1人助攻(活动后卫),1人留守后场(固定后卫),两前锋也变为1人留在前场专管偷袭、快攻,1人退守后场助防.技术动作也有所发展,跑动投篮出现了单手、高手投篮,立定投篮出现了双手胸前投篮,传球出现了单、双手击地传球,运球出现了两手交替运球躲闪防守和超越防守向前推进的技术.规则中增加了罚球区和罚球线,队员犯规4次即被取消比赛资格,犯规罚球可由队长指定任何1个队员主罚.比赛时间分为上、下半时各20分钟,中间休息10分钟.每次投中或罚中后,都在中圈跳球,重新开始比赛.而中国篮球运动水平在1926年以后有了较大提高 .
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